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Gosprom, Kharkov

The building of Gosprom - the first Soviet skyscraper - is without a doubt the symbol of Kharkov, one of its best buildings. It was conceived as a symbol of Soviet power and life in Ukraine at a time when Kharkov became the capital of the Soviet Ukrainian Republic.

In those years, enterprises of state management of industry, the so-called trusts, began to move to Kharkov. For their full-fledged functioning, there was a sorely lack of offices, and therefore it was decided to build a support for the technical bureaucracy - Gosprom. This is how the House of State Industry appeared, in which this very industry did not even "smell". The "Round" square was chosen as the site for its construction.

The competition for the construction of the State Industry involved the famous architect Academician Aleksei Beketov, but his traditional "Beketov" project because of "old-fashioned" could not compete with the young architects of constructivism.

The competition for one of the main buildings in the new capital caused serious stir, and as a result became international, and the winner was the project with the motto "Uninvited guest" of the authors of the Leningraders S. Serafimov, S. Kravets and M. Felger, however, the building was managed by the Kharkiv resident Pavel Rottert .

Most of the builders manually dug a pit in the ground for a building with a volume of 20 thousand cubic meters and removed the land on horse-drawn carts on flat carts - "grabarks".

The huge, even by today's standards, multi-storey concrete structure was built in the shortest time - for three years. The visiting card of the city was almost hand-made. To build a high-rise building, it took five thousand workers, enthusiasts and students of the Technological Institute, who worked in three shifts. As a technique used horses with carts and 14 trucks, the power of which was sometimes small. In the hottest days on the construction site, up to 15 thousand people worked simultaneously.

For the construction of the State Industry went 1315 cement wagons, 9000 tons of metal, 3700 granite wagons and 40000 sq. M. m glass. 

At the time of construction, it was the largest "skyscraper" in the USSR (according to other sources, in Europe), which is still impressive: its volume is 347 thousand m.

During the German occupation of 1941-1943, a stable was erected on the first floor, while on the other floors in the beginning of the occupation there lived monkeys who had escaped from the zoo next to the building.

Before the retreat in August 1943, during the so-called "cleaning" of Kharkov, the Germans mined the Derzhprom, like many other buildings in the city, but the explosion was prevented by an unknown patriot, who died in the process. Then the building was set on fire, but this did not harm the reinforced concrete skeleton of the Gosprom. The building was restored after the war in 1944-1947.

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