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National reserve "Pereyaslav"

The National Historical and Ethnographic Reserve "Pereyaslav" is one of the largest and most famous museum institutions in Ukraine. Pereyaslav (since 1943 - Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky) has a long history rich in outstanding events.

According to Russian chronicles, it was the third major city of the ancient Russian state - after Kiev and Chernigov. Pereyaslavl princedom played the role of a southern outpost on the path of raids of steppe nomads to Kiev. On the Pereyaslav land left traces and popular uprisings, headed by S. Nalyvaiko, G. Loboda, T. Tryasil, P. Pavliuk, Y. Ostryanitsa, K. Skidan and D. Guney, and the national liberation war led by B. Khmelnitsky. A lot of heroic pages of the history of the region are associated with the events of the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945.
Famous figures of national and world culture were born or lived here (G. Skovoroda, Sholom-Aleikhem, V. Zabolotny, etc.). It was in Pereyaslav that T. Shevchenko wrote 1845 in December one of the most famous of his poems - "The Covenant."

The study of the historical and cultural heritage of the region, the development of museum business in Pereyaslavshchina are inextricably linked with the name of Honored Worker of Culture of Ukraine, laureate of the Taras Shevchenko National Prize of Ukraine, Hero of Ukraine Mikhail Ivanovich Sikorsky - the permanent director of the institution in 1951-2008. (now - the honorary general director of NIHEZ "Pereyaslav"). At the time of his arrival in Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky, the local history museum occupied only three rooms in the family home of friend T. Shevchenko, local doctor A. Kozachkovsky. However, three years later a new exposition was created, the opening of which was held 13 April 1954 to celebrate the anniversary date - "300 anniversary of the reunification of Ukraine with Russia." In the same year, the decision of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR awarded the museum the III republican category and was given the name "Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky State Historical Museum". On the basis of this institution and the set of monuments created by him in 1979, the State Historical and Cultural Reserve was created, renamed the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 376 from 15.03.1999 to the historical and ethnographical one. The status of the national institution is provided by the Decree of the President of Ukraine from 01.06.1999 No. 598 / 99.

The reserve exists on the basis of a complex of monuments of history and culture, various collections of great historical and artistic significance. The reserve includes more than 400 objects and monuments of cultural heritage. Archaeological research began in Pereyaslavshchina since the beginning of the XIX century. and continue to this day. Since 1945, well-known scientists have worked here: BA Rybakov, MK Karger, M. Yu. Braychevsky, PA Rappoport, AM Kirpichnikov, Yu. S. Aseev, R. A. Jura, etc. The oldest archaeological monument in the reserve is a dwelling of mammoth bones, transported by a monolith from the Paleolithic site in the village. Dobranichevka Yagotinsky district of the Kiev region (about 13 thousand years). Archeologists of the reserve are exploring the territory of the Pereyaslavl Left Bank and adjacent areas of the Kyiv region. Found monuments of Trypillian culture, Bronze Age, Scythian time, Zarubintsy, Chernyakhov cultures. Surveyed and zakartografirovany about 600 barrows, more than 60 km "serpents" shaft.

The most outstanding landmark of the city's architecture was St. Michael's Cathedral of the XI century, the remains of which built a pavilion and created an exposition of the Museum of Architecture of Old Russian Pereyaslav. To the monuments of national importance is the Ascension Cathedral (1696-1700), built on the means of Hetman I. Mazepa in the style of the Ukrainian Baroque. 17 April 1701 hetman handed over to the Cathedral Peresopnytsia Gospel, which is now sworn in by the Presidents of Ukraine. Such architectural pearls as the wooden Cossack church (1606), the St. Michael Church (1666), the house of the Pereyaslav Collegium (1753), the house of AI Kozachkovsky (1820), where in 1845 and 1859 years Taras Shevchenko lived. As part of the reserve, there are 24 thematic museums of various profiles, most of which are housed in architectural monuments (churches, former petty-bourgeois and landowners' houses, peasant huts, etc.).
The main reserve fund has more than 180 thousand units of storage. The most significant monuments of the unique archaeological collection (about 90 thousand units) are: stone monumental sculptures and burial boxes of II-I millennium BC. e (69 units), things of the Scythian time of the 5th century BC. BC. e - boiler, helmet, bronze luster; a set of glass drafts in the III. n. AD, a bronze horoscope of the XI century. and a candlestick of West European work of the 11th-12th centuries, Aquarius in the form of a lion of the 13th century.

To the ethnographic collection (more than 30 thousand units) are various household items, tools, furniture, musical instruments, etc. Of great scientific and artistic value are clothes collections (10 thousand units), towels (4 thousand units), old printed XVII-XIX centuries. (about 5 thousand units, icons (more than 1200 units), art glass of the XVII-XVIII centuries. The collection of windmills (15 units) and people's land transport - sleigh, carts, carriages, truck, ruler, phaeton (more than 60 units. ) The collection of decorative and applied art includes ceramic products, carvings, beams, salaries of icons and Gospels, among the works of folk art - the works of famous masters G. Shostak, M. Priimachenko, and others.

With the purpose of scientific study, preservation and popularization of museum collections, the employees of the reserve carry out considerable research, search and exposition-educational work. Its results are discussed at scientific and practical conferences held in the reserve ("Archeology of the Middle Dnieper: Problems, Prospects, Prospects," "Efremovskoe Readings," "Middle Pridneprovie: Material and Spiritual Culture") and published in its print publications (Scientific Notes " Pereyaslavika "). Systematically conducted cycles of lectures and excursions on the materials of museum collections, ritual performances and thematic exhibitions are organized for Christmas, Easter, Green Week. Museum holidays of national masters became traditional.

The sensations of millions of visitors who got acquainted with this unique complex of monuments of the history and culture of the Pereyaslavl land were very accurately and figuratively conveyed in one of the entries in the guest book: "It is here, in Pereyaslav, having visited museums, touching the history of your native land, ... "

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