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The Golden Gate Kiev

The Golden Gate of Kiev is an architectural monument of the 11th century, one of the main fortifications of the city.

The first mention of the construction of the gate - 1037 year, "The Tale of Bygone Years". The construction of the gate for one year raises reasonable doubts, because Nestor describes the erection of a number of monumental structures in the same year. Residents of Kiev in this period was about 30tys., And for all current construction projects simply would not have enough hands. According to the manuscript "The Word of the Law and Grace" by Illarion, in the interval 1019-1037. Over the Great Gates under Prince Yaroslav the church was erected, after which they were called Golden. This period of construction looks more reliable.

According to the decree of Yaroslav the Wise, the city was surrounded by high enough trees (up to 12 m) and wide (up to 27 m) logs of logs covered with earth, with a total length of about 3.5 km. The second line of fortification was a ditch. Powerful fortifications were on the three entrance gates of the city - Lviv, Lyadsky and main - Golden.

The architecture of the ceremonial Golden Gate was different from everything that was built earlier, their role was not only throughput, they served as a ceremonial, festive entrance to the city. Above the gate tower towered the Church of the Annunciation with shining golden domes, and the passage from the gate was directed directly to the ensemble of the Hagia Sophia.

For several hundred years the Golden Gate performed its basic function, but in 1594 were destroyed. According to Erich Liasota, these were majestic ruins, along which it was still possible to judge the power of the former fortification, and they were still the gate. Their condition is clearly visible on sketches of the artist from Holland Abraham van Westerfeld, who accompanied the Lithuanian hetman Janusz Radziwill in his campaigns. Westerfeld recorded the ruins of the Church of the Annunciation, the ruins of fortress walls and the remains of entrance structures.

And in 1832 year, while excavating in the Yaroslavov Val area, Kondraty Lokhvitsky discovered the remains of walls with a length of 13,25 meters. In height, the find reached 8 m. Vaults and crypts did not survive. Attempts were made to maintain the gate - the erection of fencing around them, the strengthening of cracks with lime, the coating of metal and the addition of new masonry in certain places and the strengthening of the walls. But the precipitation and time continued destructive effects.

Only in 1972 year it was decided to restore the Golden Gate in the most close to the original form. The basis was the plans-drawings of the Vladimir gate von Burke 1779 g, built on the principle of Kiev.

Architect Lopushinskaya developed a project that allowed to preserve the oldest ruins, strengthening them and building the upper part. The one-person gatehouse with three naves was also restored. The model for the reconstruction of mosaic floors was the elements of the floor picture of an ancient temple from the Sofia Architectural Reserve.

Now there is a museum here. Guests are invited to inspect the remains of two beams that have survived from the original structure, there are also traces of sun beds and survived the masonry of the outer part of the travel arches.

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