The Field of the Battle of Poltava

27 June 1709 the Poltava battle took place, which changed the fate of Europe. Since the Battle of Poltava, as the Swedish historian Peter Englund writes, "the period of Swedish domination was over, Russia began to free itself from its old enemy, a powerful neighbor who was closing the exit to the Baltic Sea.

At the same time, the Battle of Poltava was a colossal catastrophe, not only for Sweden, but also for Europe; it broke the old balance of power - power after Poltava passes from Sweden to Russia, which is growing stronger and turning into a strong state. "

In 1909 on the initiative of the history teacher of the Poltava Cadet Corps IF Pavlovsky a museum was opened on the Poltava battlefield. In 1981, the museum and a complex of monuments connected with the Battle of Poltava were declared a state historical and cultural reserve "The Field of the Battle of Poltava" with a zone of the historical field of protection with a total area of ​​771,5 hectares. In this territory (the region of Khrestovozdvizhensky monastery, Yakovtsy - Petrovka - Semenovka - Zhuki - Osmachki - Takhtaulovo - Ivonchentsi - Rybtsy - Pushkaryovka) significant events occurred before and after the Battle of Poltava. In the protection zone of the "Battle of Poltava" there are four old settlements and over 30 burial mounds, which archaeologists date to 1 thousand BC. and 1 thousand AD.

In the north-eastern part of the Poltava battlefield, in Yakovtsy, every 1871 year, and from 1900, Nikolai Vasilyevich Sklifosovsky, a surgeon scientist, one of the founders of abdominal surgery in Russia, constantly lived and worked. The estate of an outstanding doctor was called "Poltava Switzerland". In 1884 Poltava field was created on the territory of the Poltava battlefield, and from the year of 1910 the Poltava agricultural experimental station, Ukrainian and Russian scientists actively participated in its scientific activity: A.E. Zaikevich, O.O. Izmailovsky, M.I. Vavilov, V.I. Vernadsky, V.V. Dokoutchaev. In 1962, in the northeastern part of the field, near Yakovtsi, a dendrological park was laid - now a landmark of landscape art of state significance with a total area of ​​140 hectares.

To date, the State Historical and Cultural Reserve "The Field of the Battle of Poltava" has become a significant cultural scientific and methodological center for the study of the history of Ukraine from the period of the XVII-XVIII centuries in the context of European history; in 1994 the permanent exhibition "Cossack State" was created in the museum. The mass media of Ukraine, Russia, Sweden and other states, scientists, the public are interested in the state reserve.

Reserve "Field of the Battle of Poltava" is the only one in Ukraine that is part of the IAMAM - an international organization of military-historical museums under the auspices of UNESCO, included in the world tourist route.

With the history of the Battle of Poltava, monuments are connected: ten granite obelisks in place of the former redoubts (1939), Swedes from Russians (1909), Swedes from Swedes (1909), at the crossing of the Russian army across the Vorskla River (1959 ), a commemorative sign on the site of the command post of Peter I (1973), the Bratsk grave of the dead Russian soldiers (1894), Sampsonievskaya church (1852 - 1856, reconstructed in 1895), Peter I in front of the house of the museum of history of Poltava Battle (1915), defenders of the fortress of Poltava and commandant A.S. Kelin (1909), a monument of glory (1811), at the place of rest of Peter the Great (1849), the Church of the Savior (1705-1706, reconstructed in 1845), Khrestovozdvizhensky monastery (1650, where was the headquarters of Charles XII), the Ukrainian dead Cossacks (1994).

The materials accumulated in the museum funds of the history of the Battle of Poltava, long ago went beyond not only the history of the Battle of Poltava, but also the 21-year Northern War, in which Moscovia, Poland, Denmark, Sweden, Ukraine, Turkey were drawn into a vortex. Priceless historical relics are presented in nine exposition halls: cold and firearms, medals, coins, paintings, portraits, icons, engravings, combat flags, uniforms, old books, maps, letters and other historical documents of the second half of the 18th century.

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