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Khotyn

The city of Khotyn, the center of Khotinsky district of the Chernivtsi region. Located on the river. Dniester, in 20 km from the railway station. Kamenets-Podolsky station (on the Larga-Greceani line). Known with 10 in. In 10-11 centuries in the Kievan Rus, at 12 in. - Galitsky, with 1199 - Galicia-Volyn principality.

From 14 to. Khotin at various times was under the rule of Moldova, Turkey and Poland. In 17-18 centuries was a strong Turkish fortress. Near Khotin there were several major battles: 2 September - 9 October 1621 Polish-Ukrainian troops (65 thousand people) under the command of the great hetman of Lithuanian Ya. K. Khodkevich and Ukrainian hetman PK Sagaidachny caused a number of defeats of the Turkish army (120- 150 thousand people) Sultan Osman II; 11 November 1673 Polish troops under the command of the great Crown Hetman Jan Sobieski defeated under Khotin 65-thousand. Turkish army Hussein-Pasha.

During the Russo-Turkish wars, Russian troops seized Khotin in 1739, 1769, 1788 and 1807. According to the Bucharest peace treaty 1812 went to the Russian Empire, with 1818 - the city. With 1873, Khotyn is a district town of the Bessarabian province. In 1918 was captured by Romania, in the Khotin area there was the Khotin rebellion 1919 against the Romanian occupation. 28 June 1940 Khotin in the Northern Bukovina was reunited with the Ukrainian SSR and became a district center. From 6 July 1941 on 4 April 1944 was occupied by German fascist troops.

Khotyn is known for such major monuments of architecture: the castle 13-15 cc. (rebuilt in 16-17 centuries), the princely palace 15 in. A monument to the Khotinsky Komsomol members-underground workers (concrete, 1969, sculptors MV and PB Fleita, architect AK Egorov). Khotyn fortress is an outstanding monument of defensive architecture and for a long time played an important strategic role in protecting the territory of Bukovina and the waterway along the Dniester.

Repeatedly rebuilt and changed. The fortress is located on the slopes of the high right bank of the Dniester River, at the crossroads of trade routes, was an important defensive point of Transnistria. The structure of the fortress complex includes: four defensive towers (1480), the commandant's palace, a church where fragments of the 16 painting, the Russian church (1835), which are used for the Khotyn Museum of Local History, were preserved.

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